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HomeBankMortgage affordability for debtors who re-fixed in 2023 – Financial institution Underground

Mortgage affordability for debtors who re-fixed in 2023 – Financial institution Underground

Daniel Norris, Elio Cucullo and Vasilis Jacovides

When debtors enter a fixed-rate mortgage, lenders check whether or not they may proceed to afford their mortgage if rates of interest have been to extend by the point it involves re-fix. This ‘stressing’ is designed to create extra resilience for debtors and the monetary system. Over the past two years, mortgage charges have elevated by over 4 proportion factors, elevating the price of repayments for these re-fixing. We take a look at UK mortgage knowledge and examine the stress charges utilized at origination to charges out there to debtors when re-fixing. We discover that the overwhelming majority of debtors who got here to the tip of their fastened phrases in 2023 confronted new mortgage charges which have been decrease than these they’d been ‘harassed’ at.

Which means whereas these debtors will nonetheless really feel the squeeze of upper rates of interest, their mortgage repayments will not be as excessive as underneath the harassed situation they have been examined towards. We discover that this ‘headroom’ would stay for almost all of debtors even on the peak degree mortgage charges reached in 2023.  

You will need to flag upfront that there is no such thing as a direct consequence of getting no stress price ‘headroom’ eg it doesn’t indicate that debtors would default or face no prospect of re-fixing; however there’s much less certainty about affordability. Likewise, having some ‘headroom’ doesn’t assure {that a} borrower can afford a better mortgage price. Moreover, the stress price solely accounts for one ingredient of general mortgage affordability. Will increase in revenue enhance affordability, whereas value of residing pressures squeeze affordability.

Debtors are ‘harassed’ once they enter a mortgage

When making use of for a mortgage, potential debtors are topic to an evaluation that checks whether or not they would be capable of meet their present and future mortgage funds in the event that they have been confronted with increased rates of interest sooner or later.

Most mortgages within the UK have a hard and fast price for a time period, sometimes two to 5 years. As soon as this era involves an finish, debtors sometimes re-fix; nevertheless the speed out there at this level could also be completely different to their earlier one. And this could have a huge impact on month-to-month funds – a 3 proportion level price improve on a £300k mortgage would set debtors again by an extra ~£500 per thirty days. So lenders ‘stress’ upfront whether or not debtors would be capable of proceed to afford their mortgages if charges have been to rise by the point they should re-fix. The dimensions of the ‘stress price’ utilized by lenders is usually decided by their prevailing Normal Variable Fee (SVR) and a ‘stress buffer’ that’s added on high of this, which is topic to a minimal degree set by regulators. SVRs have a tendency to maneuver according to adjustments to the Financial institution Fee.

Evaluating common stress charges to mortgage charges

Mortgage charges have elevated considerably over the past two years. The theoretical ‘stressing’ of debtors’ potential to afford their mortgages is now being examined in apply. Have been debtors coming to the tip of their fastened phrases over the past two years examined on the charges they confronted to re-fix?

Chart 1 exhibits the common stress price (orange line) throughout all mortgages coming to the tip of their fastened time period over 2022–23, for instance five-year fixes originated in 2017–18 and two-year fixes in 2020–21. The commonest merchandise in our pattern are two-year fixes. The common stress price is constructed primarily based on regulatory knowledge submitted by lenders on the stress price they utilized on every mortgage. The common stress price is comparatively secure throughout the interval as a result of on the level of origination SVRs have been low and secure. Common stress price is plotted alongside the brand new mortgage price out there (white line) for a person re-fixing with a two-year fixed-rate mortgage. The brand new mortgage price is constructed primarily based on the common mortgage charges on provide at a variety of mortgage to worth ranges (from 60% to 95%) throughout lenders. The hole between the common stress price and the brand new mortgage price is the ‘headroom’.

Chart 1: Common stress price versus new mortgage price

Sources: FCA Product Gross sales Information and Financial institution of England calculations.

Will increase in mortgage charges since January 2022 imply that, on common, there’s much less ‘headroom’ between the charges debtors have been harassed at and the charges they confronted when exiting their fastened offers. Nevertheless, this ‘headroom’ has not been fully depleted. This means that ‘stress charges’ utilized have been efficient on common in testing that debtors may afford the brand new increased charges they confronted on the level of re-fixing. When debtors re-fix with out a rise within the underlying principal, they don’t seem to be topic to an extra affordability check.

At increased mortgage charges the ‘headroom’ is smaller (and vice versa). The brand new mortgage price relies on the common two-year fastened price, which throughout 2023 was increased than the common five-year fastened price, which means the ‘stress price headroom’ can be increased if somebody was taking out a five-year deal. If prospects don’t re-fix they revert to lenders’ SVRs, that are increased than prevailing fastened time period charges, which means the ‘headroom’ can be decrease.

Distribution of debtors throughout stress charges

Whereas on common we discover a optimistic ‘headroom’, issues might be completely different for particular person debtors. Chart 2 exhibits the distribution of fastened mortgages coming to the tip of their time period in 2023, grouped by stress price and highlights the proportion (pink bar) that have been harassed beneath the common two-year fastened price over 2023 (5.62%).

Chart 2: Stress charges for fixed-rate mortgages reaching maturity in 2023

Sources: FCA Product Gross sales Information and Financial institution of England calculations.

Be aware: The primary bar captures all stress charges beneath the common two-year fastened mortgage price over 2023 (5.62%). To coincide with the common mortgage price, the second bar has a barely increased vary than different bars. The final bar captures all stress charges above 7.50%.

Our evaluation means that, regardless of the numerous improve in mortgage charges, solely 4.30% of all fixed-rate mortgages reaching maturity in 2023 have been examined at a stress price decrease than the common two-year fastened mortgage price over 2023 (5.62%). The vast majority of debtors would nonetheless have had some ‘headroom’ at mortgage charges of 6.50%, which was the very best level mortgage charges reached in 2023. As proven in Chart 2, stress charges for debtors exiting their fixed-rate durations in 2023 are concentrated between 6.50% and seven.25%, so at mortgage charges above that degree, the variety of debtors with out the ‘headroom’ offered by the affordability check would have elevated considerably.


The rate of interest debtors pay on their mortgage is a key ingredient of affordability, albeit not the one one. In our evaluation, we discover that the ‘stress’ evaluation carried out by lenders at origination will typically have subjected debtors coming to the tip of their fixed-rate phrases in 2023 to increased stress charges than the prevailing mortgage charges when re-fixing.

The broader implications of our evaluation on the housing market are laborious to disentangle, given the a number of elements at play; one potential implication is that ‘stressing’ is prone to have helped restrict any pressured gross sales from affordability pressures. General, our put up highlights the essential and never broadly acknowledged impression that ‘stressing’ could have had in supporting the resilience of particular person debtors and the general market.

Daniel Norris, Elio Cucullo and Vasilis Jacovides work within the Financial institution’s Prudential Framework Division.

If you wish to get in contact, please e mail us at or go away a remark beneath.

Feedback will solely seem as soon as authorized by a moderator, and are solely printed the place a full identify is equipped. Financial institution Underground is a weblog for Financial institution of England employees to share views that problem – or assist – prevailing coverage orthodoxies. The views expressed listed here are these of the authors, and will not be essentially these of the Financial institution of England, or its coverage committees.



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