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What if we rotate pairs day-after-day?

The vast majority of builders work solo. Duties are generally assigned to
single people in a follow that known as “solo coding”. Builders
that follow solo coding are sometimes remoted in silos that forestall data
sharing throughout the crew. These silos additionally make it troublesome for crew members
to bond and create private relationships, particularly in a distant working
setting. Onboarding of recent crew members is difficult and the
institution of high quality gates like code opinions end in a bottleneck for
supply effectivity. As well as, binding the work to particular person crew
members additionally creates a danger for every time this individual leaves the crew (eg.
holidays or sick go away). Lastly, people finally change into house owners of
areas of the system and the individual to go to for feature-specific

Pair programming is a viable different to solo coding.
On Pair Programming explores its advantages and challenges.
When growing in pairs, folks can work carefully along with the aim to
continually share data and data. This results in higher refinement
of tales as a result of everybody can have the mandatory context to contribute.
Additionally, there isn’t a want for particular code evaluation processes since all code is
being reviewed ​​on the fly. Pairing creates extra alternatives for folks to
know one another and develop private bonds thus growing crew’s cohesion.
Pairing processes ought to be accompanied by a periodic pair rotation ceremony
in order that pair switching can occur. This allows folks to expertise working
with everybody within the crew. After this ceremony builders ought to share the
present duties’ context and progress with the brand new pair in order that the supply
circulation can proceed.

The frequency of pair rotations can differ between groups. Though
frequent pair rotations are most popular so as to maximize the advantages of
pairing, some groups have reported that rotating pairs steadily creates
friction. There’s a notion that rotating pairs day-after-day, or each
different day, is extra pricey and tougher than rotating as soon as every week. On
the opposite finish of the spectrum, there are additionally groups which rotate pairs as soon as
a month. This implies a person would take at the very least 5 months to pair with
different 5 folks within the crew at the very least as soon as, assuming no repeated pairs throughout
this era. One other routine is when pairs rotate solely once they end a
job, which makes the frequency indeterminate. It is usually not sensible to
rotate pairs on job completion since it’s unlikely that different pairs
end on the identical time.

We began noticing that groups with rare pair rotations are likely to
current comparable signs seen in groups that do solo coding. Lengthy-lived pairs
begin to change into “companions in crime”. Context sharing will get tougher the longer it takes for
pair switching to occur: Builders must share all of the context from the
earlier month with a brand new pair within the context of month-to-month rotations. We had
proof that our pair switching follow wasn’t yielding the specified
outcomes, so we determined to run an experiment with the aim to enhance crew
efficiency via pairing greatest practices.

Our Experiment

We determined to problem groups that practiced rare pair rotations
to radically improve this frequency as a part of an experiment. What if for
two weeks we rotated pairs day-after-day? What had been the difficulties discovered
throughout this time, and what can we do to deal with them? Did we reap the
advantages of pairing throughout this time? Going ahead, does the crew wish to
preserve rotating pairs day-after-day or return to the earlier frequency?

We developed an train designed to assist a crew discover frequent pair
rotation and make important evaluation of its affect. The train begins
with a one hour, facilitated whiteboarding session, throughout which the crew
members write up and focus on their ideas on the next three

  • Why is pairing worthwhile?
  • What makes pairing troublesome?
  • What makes pairing simple?

These questions are offered so as. The crew has three minutes to
submit solutions for every query on the board and 7 minutes to debate
what they’ve shared.

Determine 2:
Mural board displaying crew’s suggestions through the pair rotation experiment

For the next days of the train the crew continues engaged on
their backlog whereas rotating pairs day-after-day. For any job in progress one
member of the pair stays with the duty as “anchor” whereas the opposite
rotates onto one other job. “Anchors” of a job rotate each
different day, guaranteeing that no crew member will work on a single job for
greater than two days consecutively.

The crew meets each morning for half-hour on a whiteboard session
with the next three questions:

  • What makes pairing troublesome?
  • What makes pairing simple?
  • What practices ought to we strive in the present day, to make our pairing simpler and extra

These questions are offered so as, every with three minutes to submit
concepts on the board and 5 minutes to debate. When that is completed, the
crew identifies anchors for every job in progress and facilitates the
project of recent pairs.

We facilitated this day by day retrospective utilizing the identical board day-after-day,
with a novel colour of sticky for every day. This allowed the crew members
to see the factors raised in every space on every day, leading to a
visualization of the crew’s studying and important considering all through the

On the final day of the train we facilitated the ultimate whiteboard
session, after which requested the crew to determine on a pair rotation frequency to
proceed. We then inspired the crew to proceed to revisit their pair
rotation frequency in future crew retrospectives.

Outcomes of our Experiment

Throughout 2022 – 2023 we engaged three separate groups to do this
experiment for one week every. Every of those groups had been absolutely distributed,
working collectively on-line however by no means in individual. Two of those
groups had been collocated between the US and Brazil.

Every crew raised comparable considerations firstly of the experiment. In
the primary part beneath we share a few of these considerations and describe how
the groups’ place advanced over the course of the experiment. The second
part presents some suggestions that shows the realized advantages of
pairing and frequent pair rotations.

All groups that participated in our experiment used techniques like Jira or
Trello to doc and monitor work objects, and all used the time period “card” to
describe a file in that system. The next suggestions and outcomes use
the phrase “card” on this sense.

What makes pairing laborious and the way the perceptions modified

“Lack of empathy, alignment and communication makes pairing troublesome”

Frequent pair rotation generally is a highly effective instrument in constructing stronger
crew dynamics. Initially, a scarcity of empathy and alignment could make
pairing difficult, particularly when crew members are unfamiliar with
one another’s working patterns, tempo, and areas of experience. Nonetheless,
by switching pairs steadily, crew members have the chance to
get to know each other higher, and shortly. This familiarity makes it
simpler to empathize and align with one another, in the end fostering
stronger bonds inside the crew. Furthermore, the follow of frequent
pair rotation encourages a tradition of suggestions. We recommended that crew members
deliberately share suggestions throughout brief periods on the finish of their
pairing periods, contributing to steady enchancment and higher

“There are plenty of interruptions to pairing time”

Groups reported challenges in pairing as a result of frequent interruptions
brought on by a scarcity of lengthy intervals of uninterrupted working time. To
deal with this challenge, the groups established core working hours within the
afternoon throughout which interruptions are minimized. Consequently,
conferences received shifted to the morning or the tip of the day.
Moreover, pairs inside the crew utilized the Pomodoro Method or
different express timeboxing methodology to maximise their effectivity and
productiveness throughout their restricted working time.

“Switching pairs on a regular basis makes us slower”

There’s a notion that growing the frequency of rotations
leads to a decline in supply efficiency, as perceived by the
product crew. They have a tendency to imagine that extra rotation results in diminished
effectivity and slower output.

There additionally exists a developer notion that frequent rotations
introduce further overhead, consequently slowing down the crew.
That is attributed to the necessity to constantly share the evolving
context of ongoing work, which is perceived as a time-consuming
course of.

Nonetheless, proponents of extra frequent rotations argue that sharing
context turns into extra environment friendly because the frequency will increase. That is
attributed to the truth that there’s sometimes much less contextual
data to speak if pair switching is completed steadily.
Furthermore, the effectivity of sharing context is additional enhanced when
each crew member possesses a extra complete understanding of
ongoing duties. As well as, frequent pair switches creates an
alternative for crew members to ascertain processes to facilitate
context sharing.

The follow of frequent rotation turns into extra manageable and
streamlined over time. Because the crew turns into accustomed to this
strategy, the preliminary challenges related to frequent rotation
diminish, making the method progressively simpler and extra

The skilled advantages of frequent pair rotation

“Context sharing is straightforward and fast if you do it extra typically”

One concern that we heard from all three groups was that swapping
pair members on work in progress would result in an issue of sharing
context with the brand new pair member. Actually, for every crew this appeared
to be the strongest motivation for long-lived pairs.

In every crew’s board we discovered that this concern can be raised
within the first couple of days. Crew members would recommend widespread methods
to make context sharing simpler, and by the tip of the experiment it
was not a priority. A follow that emerged in every crew was to
have pairs finish their day by including a observe to the cardboard itself,
briefly capturing the work and selections accomplished that day. They
may also add or take away objects from a to-do checklist additionally maintained in
the cardboard. These easy practices helped the cardboard itself to hold the
context of the work in progress, moderately than having that context
reside with particular crew members.

We discovered that every crew found new practices associated to the
playing cards. In our day by day discussions the crew members would ask for extra
context to be held within the card, smaller playing cards, and ongoing feedback
within the playing cards.

“Data is flowing via the crew”

This is without doubt one of the extra thrilling and insightful feedback we
heard. Groups found that, in follow, it didn’t take very lengthy
for an anchor to share context with a brand new pair firstly of a
coding session. There was not plenty of new context to share. Additionally,
groups discovered it was simpler to grasp any card after engaged on
many different playing cards of the crew’s backlog. Frequent pair rotations
speed up this expertise acquire as crew members are capable of work on
a greater variety of duties each week.

“Data silos are unattainable to keep up”

Every crew included members of various expertise ranges and
areas of experience. The groups initially considered this variety as
a problem for frequent pair rotations. Previous to the experiment,
every crew was organizing pairs and the playing cards assigned to pairs with
consideration of who’s a junior or senior crew member, who’s a
front-end, back-end or devops specialist, who has prior expertise
working in a selected space of the codebase, and so forth. Sustaining
this complicated matrix made it troublesome to modify pairs steadily,
and strengthened data silos within the crew.

It was unattainable to keep up these guidelines with the day by day pair
rotations of the experiment. With pairs rotating day-after-day, crew
members had been compelled to work in unfamiliar areas of the codebase. In
addition, there was far much less danger for any crew member working in an
unfamiliar space since that member would solely keep on a card for a
day or two earlier than passing it to another person.

Our groups discovered that frequent pair rotations leveled the
expertise affect folks have on playing cards. Longer-term crew members
might take away blockers from newer members and share data that
assist speed up their progress and studying curve of the codebase and
improvement instruments.

A number of months after the experiment, one crew gave us some
fascinating suggestions: They discovered that when an issue got here up in
manufacturing, they did not must rely upon only one individual to look
into and repair it. The crew might assign anybody to troubleshoot the
challenge. As well as, one other suggestions talked about an incoming pair
rotation introduced new context that modified implementation route
and helped resolve an issue within the early levels of the function’s
improvement, thus saving the crew a number of time and rework. These
spotlight the advantages of getting data unfold among the many

“The work is transferring among the many crew members”

Crew members discovered that everybody developed context associated to all
the playing cards in progress, even earlier than engaged on every card. This
elevated the effectiveness of the day by day standup periods: Crew
members would share insights, determine dangers upfront and assist
one another in eradicating blockers. That is solely potential when all
builders have sufficient context and possession of all playing cards in play.
No single particular person owns any piece of labor, and everybody within the
crew is liable for the progress of the duties as a complete.


Though the experiment concerned day by day pair rotations, the three
collaborating groups didn’t go for persevering with at this frequency within the
finish. One crew settled on 3 day rotations whereas the opposite two groups settled
on 2 day rotations. We seen that frequent rotations revealed
bottlenecks and friction factors within the improvement means of the groups.
Choosing rotating each 3 days as a substitute of on a regular basis pertains to working
round these blockers.

It’s common that on any day the crew members have only some hours,
typically fragmented all through the day, to pair. Crew members felt that they
wanted greater than sooner or later to realize a significant pairing expertise. In
flip, this may additionally point out excessive fragmentation of improvement time
all through the times. This was one of many causes groups opted for much less
frequency than practiced within the experiment.

Most of the perceived challenges through the experiment aren’t
absolutes, however moderately lower when addressed head-on (and conversely
improve if averted). The experiment supplied a day by day alternative for
members to replicate on pairing challenges and focus on alternate options to
clear up them as a crew. The effort and time employed within the experiment
ceremonies had a excessive return of funding.

Typically, operating the experiment dramatically improved the frequency
of pair rotations in these groups. One of many groups moved from rotating
as soon as a month to rotating each 3 days. This frequency improve was a
results of the groups acknowledging the advantages of short-lived pairs such
as higher data sharing and crew constructing. Through the experiments,
crew members additionally reported collaborating within the experiment made them study
extra about pairing greatest practices. As well as, operating pairing
retrospectives and suggestions change periods promoted the suggestions
tradition within the groups.



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